The March of the Great White Bear (3'21")

The March of the Great White Bear《大白熊進行曲》

Video based on the "stereotypical behaviours (repetitive, seemingly functionless movements)" of polar bears in captivity.

Ethological studies have shown that stereotypical behaviours may stem from limited captive environments that do not satisfy the animals' behavioural needs. It is also seen as a symptom of psychological distress, and therefore is considered a warning sign of welfare issue (but not a "welfare indicator").

It should be noted that the "current enclosures" are not necessarily the cause of stereotypical behaviours: they may stem from experiences from earlier stages of the bears' lives.

Collaborative work with sound artist I-lly Cheng (open for commision).

 Brochure: Mulhouse Zoo (France) and Grandview (正佳商場) Aquarium (China)  These bear-graphics are from internet stock images rather than the actual bears in both zoo/aquariums. 

Brochure: Mulhouse Zoo (France) and Grandview (正佳商場) Aquarium (China)

These bear-graphics are from internet stock images rather than the actual bears in both zoo/aquariums. 

White Bear (2014-)

White Bear (2014-)

Photographs (110x138cm), Documents, Videos (Watch on Vimeo

The photographic project White Bear depicts polar bears and their captivity environments globally; it also attempts to shed light on the corresponding zoological issues.

White Bear is not about polar bears — it studies the visible symptoms amid animals and their artificial habitats by focusing on one specific species. These enclosures, constructed to mimic the bears' habitat, are bizarre combinations of “nature” and “stage”.

Complete Text / ENG | 中文 

Technical Notes / ENG 中文 

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Diergaarde Blijdorp Rotterdam (2016)
Sizzel ♀Todz ♂ b. 2014, 2. Dec. Their elder brother Vicks (b. 2010) broke this glass in 2012 and was transferred to Mulhouse, France.

WILDLANDS Adventure Zoo Emmen, Netherlands (2016)

WILDLANDS Adventure Zoo Emmen, Netherlands (2016)

Lale (right, b. 2013); she was the small bear in the Bremerhaven picture (2014), now moved to Emmen. 

Lale is the niece of Sizzel (b.2014) and Todz (b.2014) in Rotterdam, which makes her older than her aunt and uncle.

Aquazoo Friesland, Netherlands (2016)

Aquazoo Friesland, Netherlands (2016)

Newly established enclosure at the north of Netherlands. In veterinarian studies, grass is better for the paws than stone or concrete structures.

Tierpark Hagenbeck, Hamburg, Deutschland (2014)

Tierpark Hagenbeck, Hamburg, Deutschland (2014)

The bears' and the walruses' enclosure were separated by a trench. The stone-like structure is hollowed with information about polar bears inside.

View in Gigapan

Highland Wildlife Park, Kincraig, Scotland (2014)

Highland Wildlife Park, Kincraig, Scotland (2014)

One of the rare cases located near the arctic circle, where artificial infrastructures are not required for the bears.

View in Gigapan

"Monde Sauvage", Aywaille, Belgium (2014)

"Monde Sauvage", Aywaille, Belgium (2014)

The bear's rear fur is blue due to consistent rubbing against the wall.

Zoo Berlin, Deutschland (2014)

Zoo Berlin, Deutschland (2014)

Two of the bears in this picture, Nancy and Tosca, deceased after my visit in 2014. Polar bears live longer in captivity due to veterinarian care.

View in Gigapan.

Zoo Praha, Czech Republic (2014)

Zoo Praha, Czech Republic (2014)

One of the two enclosure spaces for three bears at Zoo Praha.

View in Gigapan

Wuppertal Zoo, Deutschland (2014)

Wuppertal Zoo, Deutschland (2014)

In the foreground is a sea-lion-shaped float board. However, the bears nowadays were born in captivity. They should not have known what a sea lion is. Nor have they seen real icebergs.

View in Gigapan

Zoo Brno, Czech Republic (2014)

Zoo Brno, Czech Republic (2014)

View in Gigapan

Watch video on Youtube

Zoom Erlebniswelt, Gelsenkirchen, Deutschland (2014)

Zoom Erlebniswelt, Gelsenkirchen, Deutschland (2014)

The bear "Fanny" died in September, 2014.

View in Gigapan

Watch video on Youtube

Bremerhaven Zoo, Deutschland (2014)

Bremerhaven Zoo, Deutschland (2014)

The young bear Lale (b.2013) in this picture was moved to Emmen (the second picture of this gallery)

View in Gigapan

Tiergarten Schönbrunn Freunde, Wien, Austria (2014)

Tiergarten Schönbrunn Freunde, Wien, Austria (2014)

The oldest zoo on Earth.

View in Gigapan

 Locations of polar bears in captivity in Europe (2016).  Red pins are sites visited.

Locations of polar bears in captivity in Europe (2016).

Red pins are sites visited.

 As of July, 2014, there are 291 polar bears living in full captivity on Earth. Red pins are the 26 sites visited by this (ongoing) project.   View in   Google Map Engine

As of July, 2014, there are 291 polar bears living in full captivity on Earth. Red pins are the 26 sites visited by this (ongoing) project. 

View in Google Map Engine

 Entrance tickets and brochures

Entrance tickets and brochures

Maps: Europe (Selected)

Maps: Europe (Selected)

 -Installation-  L: Lianzhou Foto Festival, China (2016)  R: Wanderer Studio, Taipei (2015)

-Installation-

L: Lianzhou Foto Festival, China (2016)

R: Wanderer Studio, Taipei (2015)

 book (in the making) mechanism:  Combining transparency sheets and "right-to-left page-turning" action unique to the book medium, we hope to achieve an interactive experience of re-locating the bears. While flipping the pages, the reader pluck the bear from their natural polar habitats to artificial habitats.  The goal is making a children-friendly photo book with a simple mechanism.  Arctic image credit: Christopher Wood

book (in the making) mechanism:

Combining transparency sheets and "right-to-left page-turning" action unique to the book medium, we hope to achieve an interactive experience of re-locating the bears. While flipping the pages, the reader pluck the bear from their natural polar habitats to artificial habitats.

The goal is making a children-friendly photo book with a simple mechanism.

Arctic image credit: Christopher Wood